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    Book of the dead found

    book of the dead found

    found as spell in the Pyramid Texts (PT), first attested some 2, years earlier. The judgement scene refers to chapter of the Book of the Dead (BD ). The Book of the Dead was placed with the dead either as a papyrus roll or as single chapters written on linen bindings added to the mummy bindings. The book of the dead: the Papyrus Ani in the British Museum ; the Egyptian text with interlinear transliteration and translation, a running translation, introd. etc. The Medici Society; New York: Sarg des Anch-Hor Late Period, ca. Mis appropriations of the Book of the Dead. Seminar für Ägyptologie und Koptologie. Citations refer to the Leipzig edition. Studies for the Centennial of the Egyp- 11— Ori- entalia Lovaniensia Analecta Pyramid Texts inscribed inside the burial chambers of the pyramid of Unas at Saqqara N. Geburtstag, edited by Zauzich zum Saleh, Mohamed Oriental Institute. On papyri of the Eighteenth Dynasty, eight and linen shrouds of the formative period of the late strings of spells have been noted that are often found Seventeenth and early Eighteenth Dynasties, demon- grouped together, though not in precisely the same strating an adumbrating link to the later Books of the order, and an effort has been made to identify the Dead. Log In Sign Up. Festschrift Res severa verum gaudium: Studies in Ancient Oriental Civilization 39, Monotheism. Structure and Usage, edited by M.

    Book of the dead found -

    Longmans, Green Chegodaev, M. Parallel zu dieser Lizenz muss auch ein Lizenzbaustein für die United States public domain gesetzt werden, um anzuzeigen, dass dieses Werk auch in den Vereinigten Staaten gemeinfrei ist. I love this game. Translating Scrip- dien zu Altägyptischen Totentexten Book of the Dead Spell Studien zu den Ritualszenen altägyptischer baden:

    Book Of The Dead Found Video

    The Egyptian Book of the Dead, Part 1 (Unabridged Audiobook) Spirituality - Mysticism

    These powers of evil had hideous and terrifying shapes and forms, and their haunts were well known, for they infested the region through which the road of the dead lay when passing from this world to the Kingdom of Osiris.

    The "great gods" were afraid of them, and were obliged to protect themselves by the use of spells and magical names, and words of power, which were composed and written down by Thoth.

    Since then the "great gods," even though benevolently disposed towards them, were not able to deliver the dead from the devils that lived upon the "bodies, souls, spirits, shadows and hearts of the dead," the Egyptians decided to invoke the aid of Thoth on behalf of their dead and to place them under the protection of his almighty spells.

    Inspired by Thoth the theologians of ancient Egypt composed a large number of funerary texts which were certainly in general use under the IVth dynasty about B.

    The spells and other texts which were written by Thoth for the benefit of the dead, and are directly connected with him, were called, according to documents written under the XIth and XVIIIth dynasties, "Chapters of the Coming Forth by or, into the Day,".

    One rubric in the Papyrus of Nu Brit. The plinth was found by Prince Herutataf, , a son of King Khufu Cheops , who carried it off to his king and exhibited it as a "most wonderful" thing.

    This composition was greatly reverenced, for it "would make a man victorious upon earth and in the Other World; it would ensure him a safe and free passage through the Tuat Under World ; it would allow him to go in and to go out, and to take at any time any form he pleased; it would make his soul to flourish, and would prevent him from dying the [second] death.

    As the title of the shorter version states that it is the "Chapters of the PER-T EM HRU in a single chapter," it is clear that this work, even under the IVth dynasty, contained many "Chapters," and that a much abbreviated form of the work was also current at the same period.

    The rubric that attributes the "finding" of the Chapter to Herutataf associates page 5 it with Khemenu, i. The "Pyramid Texts" have no illustrations, but a few of the texts on the coffins of the XIth and XIIth dynasties have coloured vignettes, e.

    On the upper margins of the insides of such coffins there are frequently given two or more rows of coloured drawings of the offerings which under the Vth dynasty were presented to the deceased or his statue during the celebration of the service of "Opening the Mouth" and the performance of the ceremonies of "The Liturgy of Funerary Offerings.

    At first the texts were written in hieroglyphs, the greater number of them being in black ink, and an attempt was made to illustrate each text by a vignette drawn in black outline.

    The finest known example of such a codex is the Papyrus of Nebseni Brit. Early in the XVIIIth dynasty scribes began to write the titles of the Chapters, the rubrics, and the catchwords in red ink and the text in black, and it became customary to decorate the vignettes with colours, and to increase their size and number.

    The oldest codex of this class is the Papyrus of Nu Brit. This and many other rolls were written by their owners for their own tombs, and in each roll both text and vignettes were usually, the work of the same hand.

    Later, however, the scribe wrote the text only, and a skilled artist was employed to add the coloured vignettes, for page 7 which spaces were marked out and left blank by the scribe.

    The finest example of this class of roll is the Papyrus of Ani Brit. In all papyri of this class the text is page 8 written in hieroglyphs, but under the XIXth and following dynasties many papyri are written throughout in the hieratic character; these usually lack vignettes, but have coloured frontispieces.

    Vignette and Chapter of the Book of the Dead written in hieratic for Heru-em-heb. The greater number of the rolls of this period are short and contain only a few Chapters, e.

    In some the text is very defective and carelessly written, but the coloured vignettes are remarkable for their size and beauty; of this class of roll the finest example is the Papyrus of Anhai Brit.

    The most interesting of all the rolls that were written during the rule of the Priest-Kings over Upper Egypt is the Papyrus of Princess Nesitanebtashru Brit.

    She believed that the "hidden" creative power which was materialized in Amen was only another form of the power of procreation, renewed birth and resurrection which was typified by Osiris.

    Her-Heru, the first priest-king, and Queen Netchemet standing in the Hall of Osiris and praying to the god whilst the heart of the Queen is being weighed in the Balance.

    One of the most remarkable texts written at this period is found in the Papyrus of Nesi-Khensu, which is now in the Egyptian Museum in Cairo.

    The contract was drawn up in a series of paragraphs in legal phraseology by the priests of Amen, who believed they had the power of making their god do as they pleased when they pleased.

    The Ceremony of "Opening of the Mouth" being performed on the mummy of the royal scribe Hunefer at the door of the tomb. From the sarcophagus of Nekhut-Heru-hebt, king of Egypt, B.

    Many funerary rolls were written both in hieroglyphs and hieratic, and were decorated with vignettes drawn in black outline; and about this time the scribes began to write funerary texts in the demotic character.

    The dead were no longer buried with large rolls of papyrus filled with Chapters of the PER-T EM HRU laid in their coffins, but with small sheets or strips of papyrus, on which were inscribed the above compositions, or the shorter texts of the "Book of Breathings," or the "Book of Traversing Eternity," or the "Book of May my name flourish," or a part of the "Chapter of the Last Judgment.

    During the four thousand years of its existence many additions were made to it, but nothing of importance seems to have been taken away from it.

    In the space here available it is impossible to describe in detail the various Recensions of this work, viz. No one papyrus can be cited as a final authority, for no payprus contains all the Chapters, in number, of the Theban Recension, and in no two papyri are the selection and sequence of the Chapters identical, or is the treatment of the vignettes the same.

    His words were almighty and once uttered never remained without effect. He framed the laws by which heaven, earth and all the heavenly bodies are maintained; he ordered the courses of the sun, moon, and stars; he invented drawing and design and the arts, the letters of the alphabet and the art of writing, and the science of mathematics.

    At a very page 15 early period he was called the "scribe or secretary of the Great Company of the Gods," and as he kept the celestial register of the words and deeds of men, he was regarded by many generations of Egyptians as the "Recording Angel.

    Osiris owed his triumph over Set in the Great Judgment Hall of the Gods entirely to the skill of Thoth of the "wise mouth" as an Advocate, and to his influence with the gods in heaven.

    And every follower of Osiris relied upon the advocacy of Thoth to secure his acquittal on the Day of Judgment, and to procure for him an everlasting habitation in the Kingdom of Osiris.

    The Egyptians were not satisfied with the mere possession of the texts of Thoth, when their souls were being weighed in the Great Scales in the Judgment Hall of Osiris, but they also wished Thoth to act as their Advocate on this dread occasion and to prove their innocence as he had proved that of Osiris before the great gods in prehistoric times.

    According to a very ancient Egyptian tradition, the god Osiris, who was originally the god of the principle of the fertility of the Nile, became incarnate on earth as the son of Geb, the Earth-god, and Nut, the Sky-goddess.

    Geb set Osiris on the throne of Egypt, and his rule was beneficent page 16 and the nation was happy and prosperous. Set marked this and became very jealous of his brother, and wished to slay him so that he might seize his throne and take possession of Isis, whose reputation as a devoted and loving wife and able manager filled the country.

    By some means or other Set did contrive to kill Osiris: They then laid the body in a tomb, and a sycamore tree grew round it and flourished over the grave.

    A tradition which is found in the Pyramid Texts states that before Osiris was laid in his tomb, his wife Isis, by means of her magical powers, succeeded in restoring him to life temporarily, and made him beget of her an heir, who was called Horus.

    After the burial of Osiris, Isis retreated to the marshes in the Delta, and there she brought forth Horus. In order to avoid the persecution of Set, who on one occasion succeeded in killing Horus by the sting of a scorpion, she fled from place to place in the Delta, and lived a very unhappy life for some years.

    But Thoth helped her in all her difficulties and provided her with the words of power which restored Horus to life, and enabled her to pass unharmed among the crocodiles and other evil beasts that infested the waters of the Delta at that time.

    When Horus arrived at years of maturity, he set out to find Set and to wage war against his father's murderer. At length they met and a fierce fight ensued, and though Set was defeated before he was finally hurled to the ground, he succeeded in tearing out the right eye of Horus and keeping it.

    Even after this fight Set was able to persecute Isis, and Horus was powerless to prevent it page 17 until Thoth made Set give him the right eye of Horus which he had carried off.

    Thoth then brought the eye to Horus, and replaced it in his face, and restored sight to it by spitting upon it.

    Horus then sought out the body of Osiris in order to raise it up to life, and when he found it he untied the bandages so that Osiris might move his limbs, and rise up.

    Under the direction of Thoth Horus recited a series of formulas as he presented offerings to Osiris, and he and his sons and Anubis performed the ceremonies which opened the mouth, and nostrils, and the eyes and the ears of page 18 Osiris.

    He embraced Osiris and so transferred to him his ka , i. As soon as Osiris had eaten the eye of Horus he became endowed with a soul and vital power, and recovered thereby the complete use of all his mental faculties, which death had suspended.

    Osiris became the type and symbol of resurrection among the Egyptians of all periods, because he was a god who had been originally a mortal and had risen from the dead.

    Piecing together a number of disconnected hints and brief statements in the texts, it seems pretty clear either that Osiris appealed to the "Great Gods" to take notice that Set had murdered him, or that Set brought a series of charges against Osiris.

    At all events the "Great Gods" determined to investigate the matter. The Greater and the Lesser Companies of the Gods assembled in the celestial Anu, or Heliopolis, and ordered Osiris to stand up and defend himself against the charges brought against him by Set.

    Isis and Nephthys brought him before the gods, and Horus, "the avenger of his father," came to watch the case on behalf of his father, Osiris.

    Thoth appeared in the Hall of Judgment in his official capacity as "scribe," i. Set seems to have pleaded his own cause, and to have repeated the charges which he had made against Osiris.

    The defence of Osiris was undertaken by Thoth, who proved to the gods that the charges brought against Osiris by Set were unfounded, that the statements of Set were lies, and that therefore Set was a liar.

    The gods accepted Thoth's proof of the innocence of Osiris and the guilt of Set, and ordered that Osiris was to be considered a Great God and to have rule over the Kingdom of the Under World, and that Set was to be punished.

    After this Set was bound with cords like a beast for sacrifice, and in the presence of Thoth was hacked in pieces.

    When Set was destroyed Osiris departed from this world to the kingdom which the gods had given him and began to reign over the dead.

    This region of the dead, or Dead-land, is called "Tat," , or "Tuat," , but where the Egyptians thought it was situated is not quite clear.

    The original home of the cult of Osiris was in the Delta, in a city which in historic times was called Tetu by the Egyptians and Busiris by the Greeks, and it is reasonable to assume that the Tuat, over which Osiris ruled, was situated near this place.

    Wherever it was it was not underground, and it was not originally in the sky or even on its confines; but it was located on the borders of the visible world, in the Outer Darkness.

    When Ani the scribe arrived there he said, "What is this to which I have come? There is neither water nor air here, its depth is unfathomable, it is as dark as the darkest night, and men wander about here helplessly.

    In the Tuat there was neither tree nor plant, for it was the "land where nothing grew"; and in primitive times it was a region of destruction and death, a place where the dead rotted and decayed, a place of abomination, and horror and terror, and annihilation.

    But in very early times, certainly page 20 in the Neolithic Period, the Egyptians believed in some kind of a future life, and they dimly conceived that the attainment of that life might possibly depend upon the manner of life which those who hoped to enjoy it led here.

    The Egyptians "hated death and loved life," and when the belief gained ground among them that Osiris, the God of the Dead, had himself risen from the dead, and had been acquitted by the gods of heaven after a searching trial, and had the power to "make men and women to be born again," and "to renew life" because of his truth and righteousness, they came to regard him as the Judge as well as the God of the Dead.

    As time went on, and moral and religious ideas developed among the Egyptians, it became certain to them that only those who had satisfied Osiris as to their truth-speaking and honest dealing upon earth could hope for admission into his kingdom.

    When the power of Osiris became predominant in the Under World, and his fame as a just and righteous judge became well established among the natives of Lower and Upper Egypt, it was universally believed that after death all men would appear before him in his dread Hall of Judgment to receive their reward or their sentence of doom.

    The writers of the Pyramid Texts, more than fifty-five centuries ago, dreamed of a time when heaven and earth and men did not exist, when the gods had not yet been born, when death had not been created, , and when anger, speech?

    Meanwhile death had come into the world, and since the religion of Osiris gave man a hope of escape from death, and the promise of everlasting life of the peculiar kind that appealed to the great mass of the Egyptian people, the spread of the cult of Osiris and its ultimate triumph over all forms of religion in Egypt were assured.

    It was embraced by the Pharaohs, and their high officials, and some of the nobles, and the official priesthood, but the reward which its doctrine offered was not popular with the materialistic Egyptians.

    The Judgment of Osiris took place near Abydos, probably at midnight, and a decree of swift annihilation was passed by him on the damned.

    Their heads were cut off by the headsman of Osiris, who was called Shesmu, , and their bodies dismembered and destroyed in pits of fire.

    There was no eternal punishment for men, for the wicked were annihilated quickly and completely; but inasmuch as Osiris sat in judgment and doomed the wicked to destruction daily, the infliction of punishment never ceased.

    The oldest religious texts suggest that the Egyptians always associated the Last Judgment with the weighing of the heart in a pair of scales, and in the illustrated papyri of the Book of the Dead great prominence is always given to the vignettes in which this weighing is being carried out.

    The heart, ab , was taken as the symbol of all the emotions, desires, and passions, both good and evil, and out of it proceeded the issues of life.

    It was intimately connected with the ka , , i. I have destroyed sin for thee. I have not sinned against men.

    I have not oppressed [my] kinsfolk. I have done no wrong in the place of truth. I have not known worthless folk. I have not wrought evil.

    I have not defrauded the oppressed one of his goods. I have not done the things that the gods abominate. I have not vilified a servant to his master.

    I have not caused pain. I have not let any man hunger. I have made no one to weep. I have not committed murder. I have not commanded any to commit murder for me.

    I have inflicted pain on no man. I have not defrauded the temples page 23 of their oblations. I have not purloined the cakes of the gods.

    I have not stolen the offerings to the spirits i. I have not committed fornication. I have not polluted myself in the holy places of the god of my city.

    I have not diminished from the bushel. I did not take from or add to the acre-measure. I did not encroach on the fields [of others]. I have not added to the weights of the scales.

    I have not misread the pointer of the scales. I have not taken milk from the mouths of children.

    I have not driven cattle from their pastures. I have not snared the birds of the gods. I have not caught fish with fish of their kind.

    I have not stopped water [when it should flow]. I have not cut the dam of a canal. I have not extinguished a fire when it should burn.

    I have not altered the times of the chosen meat offerings. I have not turned away the cattle [intended for] offerings. I have not repulsed the god at his appearances.

    Each of the Forty-Two gods represents one of the nomes of Egypt and has a symbolic name. When the deceased had repeated the magical names of the doors of the Hall, he entered it and saw these gods arranged in two rows, twenty-one on each side of the Hall.

    The deceased advanced along the Hall and, addressing each of the Forty-Two gods by his name, declared that he had not committed a certain sin, thus:.

    The names of most of the Forty-Two gods are not ancient, but were invented by the priests probably about the same time as the names in the Book of Him that is in the Tuat and the Book of Gates, i.

    Their artificial character is shown by their meanings. The early Egyptologists called the second part of the CXXVth Chapter the "Negative Confession," and it is generally known by this somewhat inexact title to this day.

    In the third part of the CXXVth Chapter comes the address which the deceased made to the gods after he had declared his innocence of the sins enumerated before the Forty-Two gods.

    I know you and I know your names. Let me not fall under your slaughtering knives. Bring not my wickedness to the notice of the god whose followers ye are.

    Let not the affair [of my judgment] come under your jurisdiction. Speak ye the Law or truth concerning me before Neb-er-tcher, 3 for I performed the Law or, truth in Ta-mera i.

    I have not blasphemed the God. No affair of mine came under the notice of the king in his day. I have come page 25 to you without sin, without deceit?

    I have not done an [evil] thing. I live upon truth and I feed upon truth. I have performed the behests of men, and the things that satisfy the gods.

    I have given bread to the hungry, water to the thirsty, raiment to the naked, and a boat to him that needed one. I have made holy offerings to the gods, and sepulchral offerings to the beautified dead.

    Be ye then my saviours, be ye my protectors, and make no accusation against me before the Great God. I am pure of mouth, and clean of hands; therefore it hath been said by those who saw me, 'Come in peace, come in peace.

    The deceased then addresses Osiris, and says, "Hail, thou who art exalted upon thy standard, thou Lord of the Atefu Crown, whose name is 'Lord of Winds,' save me from thy Messengers or Assessors with uncovered faces, who bring charges of evil and make shortcomings plain, because I have performed the Law or Truth for the Lord of the Law or Truth.

    I have purified myself with washings in water, my back hath been cleansed with salt, and my inner parts are in the Pool of Truth.

    There is not a member of mine that lacketh truth. When he had pronounced these correctly the porter took him in and presented him to Maau?

    When asked by him why he had come the deceased answered, "I have come that report may be made of me. The most complete form of it is given in the Papyrus of Ani, and may be thus described: By these stands the Great Balance, and on its pillar sits the dog-headed ape Astes, or Astenu, the associate of Thoth.

    The pointer of the Balance is in the charge of Anpu. On the other side of the Balance Ani, accompanied by his wife, is seen standing with head bent low in adoration, and between him and the Balance stand the two goddesses who nurse and rear children, Meskhenet and Rennet, Ani's soul, in the form of a man-headed hawk, a portion of his body, and his luck Shai.

    Since the heart was considered to be the seat of all will, emotion, feeling, reason and intelligence, Ani's heart, , is seen in one pan of the Balance, and in the other is the feather, , symbolic of truth and righteousness.

    My heart of my mother! My heart of my being! Make no stand against me when testifying, thrust me not back before the Tchatchaut i.

    World-renowned Egyptologist Dr John Taylor was viewing the museum's Egyptian collection when a name on a papyrus fragment caught his eye.

    Dr Taylor is the curator of the British Museum's mummy collection. The British Museum currently has a mummy exhibition on display at the Queensland Museum.

    What we've got in Brisbane are the missing portions of this ancient book which has been split up, divided across the world for well over a hundred years.

    He was taken to the museum's storeroom to see more and says what came next is a once-in-a-lifetime discovery. Dr Taylor says the rare specimens belonged to a high priest of the Temple of Amun, around 3, years ago.

    Queensland Museum chief executive Ian Galloway says the manuscript fragments were donated to the museum by a woman years ago. He paid tribute to the museum's past curators for keeping the fragile fragments in such good condition.

    There was no doubt the rare manuscript would boost interest in the Queensland Museum, and potentially the value of its collection, he added.

    The fragments will remain in Brisbane and scholars are expected to attempt to piece together the papyrus on a computer using photographs.

    First posted April 20, More stories from Queensland. If you have inside knowledge of a topic in the news, contact the ABC.

    ABC teams share the story behind the story and insights into the making of digital, TV and radio content. Read about our editorial guiding principles and the enforceable standard our journalists follow.

    As a truck blazes in the background, a man lunges with a knife at police officers, who backpedal desperately. Bystanders jump into the fray, one wielding a chair, another a shopping trolley, before the assailant is finally neutralised.

    You might have noticed the absence of our weekly news quiz. It still exists, just not where you might expect. It's actually heartbreaking the extent to which women who've been sexually harassed, even though they tried to play by the rules now find themselves painfully centre stage in a media and legal circus.

    Sorry, this video has expired. Unlocking the secrets of ancient Egypt. We are incredibly surprised that we had such a significant object in our collection.

    Updated April 21, Missing fragments from the ancient Egyptian Book of the Dead have been uncovered deep in the stores of the Queensland Museum. Parts of the manuscript were discovered in the late 19th Century, but archaeologists have never found it all.

    World-renowned Egyptologist Dr John Taylor was viewing the museum's Egyptian collection when a name on a papyrus fragment caught his eye. Dr Taylor is the curator of the British Museum's mummy collection.

    The British Museum currently has a mummy exhibition on display at the Queensland Museum. What we've got in Brisbane are the missing portions of this ancient book which has been split up, divided across the world for well over a hundred years.

    He was taken to the museum's storeroom to see more and says what came next is a once-in-a-lifetime discovery. Dr Taylor says the rare specimens belonged to a high priest of the Temple of Amun, around 3, years ago.

    Queensland Museum chief executive Ian Galloway says the manuscript fragments were donated to the museum by a woman years ago.

    He paid tribute to the museum's past curators for keeping the fragile fragments in such good condition. There was no doubt the rare manuscript would boost interest in the Queensland Museum, and potentially the value of its collection, he added.

    The fragments will remain in Brisbane and scholars are expected to attempt to piece together the papyrus on a computer using photographs.

    First posted April 20, More stories from Queensland. Your contribution may be further edited by our staff, and its publication is subject to our final approval.

    Unfortunately, our editorial approach may not be able to accommodate all contributions. Our editors will review what you've submitted, and if it meets our criteria, we'll add it to the article.

    Please note that our editors may make some formatting changes or correct spelling or grammatical errors, and may also contact you if any clarifications are needed.

    Book of the Dead ancient Egyptian text. The Editors of Encyclopaedia Britannica. Letters to the Dead. Learn More in these related Britannica articles: Such books, when overlooked by grave robbers, survived in good condition in the tomb.

    Besides mortuary texts, Egyptian texts included scientific writings and a large number of myths, stories, and tales.

    Known as the Book of the Dead from about bce , it reads very much like an oratorio. Although there is no evidence that it was actually performed, the ritual is full of theatrical elements.

    It describes the journey of a soul, brought after death by the jackal-headed…. Manuscript design in antiquity and the Middle Ages. The ancient Egyptian Book of the Dead , which contained texts intended to aid the deceased in the afterlife, is a superb example of early graphic design.

    Hieroglyphic narratives penned by scribes are illustrated with colourful illustrations on rolls of papyrus. Words and pictures are unified into a cohesive….

    Subsequently, and especially in the Late period, pure line drawing was increasingly employed. The title "Book of the Dead" is somewhat unsatisfactory and misleading, for the texts neither form a connected work nor belong to one period; they are miscellaneous in character, and tell us nothing about the lives and works of the dead with whom they were buried.

    Moreover, the Egyptians possessed many funerary works that might rightly be called "Books of the Dead," but none of them bore a name that could be translated by the title "Book of the Dead.

    They were familiar with the rolls of papyrus inscribed in the hieroglyphic and the hieratic character, for copies of several had been published, 1 but the texts in them were short and fragmentary.

    These men knew nothing of the contents of such a roll, and all they meant to say was that it was "a dead man's book," and that it was found in his coffin with him.

    II, plate 64 ff. This papyrus is nearly 30 feet in length and was brought to Strassburg by a paymaster in Napoleon's Army in Egypt called Poussielgue, who sold it to M.

    The objects found in the graves of the predynastic Egyptians, i. But as the art of writing was, unknown to them their graves contain no inscriptions, and we can only infer from texts of the dynastic period what their ideas about the Other World were.

    It is clear that they did not consider it of great importance to preserve the dead body in as complete and perfect state as possible, for in many of their graves the heads, hands and feet have been found severed from the trunks and lying at some distance from them.

    On the other hand, the dynastic Egyptians, either as the result of a difference in religious belief, or under the influence of invaders who had settled in their country, attached supreme importance to the preservation and integrity of the dead body, and they adopted every means known to them to prevent its dismemberment and decay.

    They cleansed it and embalmed it with drugs, spices and balsams; they anointed it with aromatic oils and preservative fluids; they swathed it in hundreds of yards of linen bandages; and then they sealed it up in a coffin or sarcophagus, which they laid in a chamber hewn in the bowels of the mountain.

    All page 3 these things were done to protect the physical body against damp, dry rot and decay, and against the attacks of moth, beetles, worms and wild animals.

    But these were not the only enemies of the dead against which precautions had to be taken, for both the mummified body and the spiritual elements which had inhabited it upon earth had to be protected from a multitude of devils and fiends, and from the powers of darkness generally.

    These powers of evil had hideous and terrifying shapes and forms, and their haunts were well known, for they infested the region through which the road of the dead lay when passing from this world to the Kingdom of Osiris.

    The "great gods" were afraid of them, and were obliged to protect themselves by the use of spells and magical names, and words of power, which were composed and written down by Thoth.

    Since then the "great gods," even though benevolently disposed towards them, were not able to deliver the dead from the devils that lived upon the "bodies, souls, spirits, shadows and hearts of the dead," the Egyptians decided to invoke the aid of Thoth on behalf of their dead and to place them under the protection of his almighty spells.

    Inspired by Thoth the theologians of ancient Egypt composed a large number of funerary texts which were certainly in general use under the IVth dynasty about B.

    The spells and other texts which were written by Thoth for the benefit of the dead, and are directly connected with him, were called, according to documents written under the XIth and XVIIIth dynasties, "Chapters of the Coming Forth by or, into the Day,".

    One rubric in the Papyrus of Nu Brit. The plinth was found by Prince Herutataf, , a son of King Khufu Cheops , who carried it off to his king and exhibited it as a "most wonderful" thing.

    This composition was greatly reverenced, for it "would make a man victorious upon earth and in the Other World; it would ensure him a safe and free passage through the Tuat Under World ; it would allow him to go in and to go out, and to take at any time any form he pleased; it would make his soul to flourish, and would prevent him from dying the [second] death.

    As the title of the shorter version states that it is the "Chapters of the PER-T EM HRU in a single chapter," it is clear that this work, even under the IVth dynasty, contained many "Chapters," and that a much abbreviated form of the work was also current at the same period.

    The rubric that attributes the "finding" of the Chapter to Herutataf associates page 5 it with Khemenu, i. The "Pyramid Texts" have no illustrations, but a few of the texts on the coffins of the XIth and XIIth dynasties have coloured vignettes, e.

    On the upper margins of the insides of such coffins there are frequently given two or more rows of coloured drawings of the offerings which under the Vth dynasty were presented to the deceased or his statue during the celebration of the service of "Opening the Mouth" and the performance of the ceremonies of "The Liturgy of Funerary Offerings.

    At first the texts were written in hieroglyphs, the greater number of them being in black ink, and an attempt was made to illustrate each text by a vignette drawn in black outline.

    The finest known example of such a codex is the Papyrus of Nebseni Brit. Early in the XVIIIth dynasty scribes began to write the titles of the Chapters, the rubrics, and the catchwords in red ink and the text in black, and it became customary to decorate the vignettes with colours, and to increase their size and number.

    The oldest codex of this class is the Papyrus of Nu Brit. This and many other rolls were written by their owners for their own tombs, and in each roll both text and vignettes were usually, the work of the same hand.

    Later, however, the scribe wrote the text only, and a skilled artist was employed to add the coloured vignettes, for page 7 which spaces were marked out and left blank by the scribe.

    The finest example of this class of roll is the Papyrus of Ani Brit. In all papyri of this class the text is page 8 written in hieroglyphs, but under the XIXth and following dynasties many papyri are written throughout in the hieratic character; these usually lack vignettes, but have coloured frontispieces.

    Vignette and Chapter of the Book of the Dead written in hieratic for Heru-em-heb. The greater number of the rolls of this period are short and contain only a few Chapters, e.

    In some the text is very defective and carelessly written, but the coloured vignettes are remarkable for their size and beauty; of this class of roll the finest example is the Papyrus of Anhai Brit.

    The most interesting of all the rolls that were written during the rule of the Priest-Kings over Upper Egypt is the Papyrus of Princess Nesitanebtashru Brit.

    She believed that the "hidden" creative power which was materialized in Amen was only another form of the power of procreation, renewed birth and resurrection which was typified by Osiris.

    Her-Heru, the first priest-king, and Queen Netchemet standing in the Hall of Osiris and praying to the god whilst the heart of the Queen is being weighed in the Balance.

    One of the most remarkable texts written at this period is found in the Papyrus of Nesi-Khensu, which is now in the Egyptian Museum in Cairo.

    The contract was drawn up in a series of paragraphs in legal phraseology by the priests of Amen, who believed they had the power of making their god do as they pleased when they pleased.

    The Ceremony of "Opening of the Mouth" being performed on the mummy of the royal scribe Hunefer at the door of the tomb. From the sarcophagus of Nekhut-Heru-hebt, king of Egypt, B.

    Many funerary rolls were written both in hieroglyphs and hieratic, and were decorated with vignettes drawn in black outline; and about this time the scribes began to write funerary texts in the demotic character.

    The dead were no longer buried with large rolls of papyrus filled with Chapters of the PER-T EM HRU laid in their coffins, but with small sheets or strips of papyrus, on which were inscribed the above compositions, or the shorter texts of the "Book of Breathings," or the "Book of Traversing Eternity," or the "Book of May my name flourish," or a part of the "Chapter of the Last Judgment.

    During the four thousand years of its existence many additions were made to it, but nothing of importance seems to have been taken away from it.

    In the space here available it is impossible to describe in detail the various Recensions of this work, viz. No one papyrus can be cited as a final authority, for no payprus contains all the Chapters, in number, of the Theban Recension, and in no two papyri are the selection and sequence of the Chapters identical, or is the treatment of the vignettes the same.

    His words were almighty and once uttered never remained without effect. He framed the laws by which heaven, earth and all the heavenly bodies are maintained; he ordered the courses of the sun, moon, and stars; he invented drawing and design and the arts, the letters of the alphabet and the art of writing, and the science of mathematics.

    At a very page 15 early period he was called the "scribe or secretary of the Great Company of the Gods," and as he kept the celestial register of the words and deeds of men, he was regarded by many generations of Egyptians as the "Recording Angel.

    Osiris owed his triumph over Set in the Great Judgment Hall of the Gods entirely to the skill of Thoth of the "wise mouth" as an Advocate, and to his influence with the gods in heaven.

    And every follower of Osiris relied upon the advocacy of Thoth to secure his acquittal on the Day of Judgment, and to procure for him an everlasting habitation in the Kingdom of Osiris.

    The Egyptians were not satisfied with the mere possession of the texts of Thoth, when their souls were being weighed in the Great Scales in the Judgment Hall of Osiris, but they also wished Thoth to act as their Advocate on this dread occasion and to prove their innocence as he had proved that of Osiris before the great gods in prehistoric times.

    According to a very ancient Egyptian tradition, the god Osiris, who was originally the god of the principle of the fertility of the Nile, became incarnate on earth as the son of Geb, the Earth-god, and Nut, the Sky-goddess.

    Geb set Osiris on the throne of Egypt, and his rule was beneficent page 16 and the nation was happy and prosperous. Set marked this and became very jealous of his brother, and wished to slay him so that he might seize his throne and take possession of Isis, whose reputation as a devoted and loving wife and able manager filled the country.

    By some means or other Set did contrive to kill Osiris: They then laid the body in a tomb, and a sycamore tree grew round it and flourished over the grave.

    A tradition which is found in the Pyramid Texts states that before Osiris was laid in his tomb, his wife Isis, by means of her magical powers, succeeded in restoring him to life temporarily, and made him beget of her an heir, who was called Horus.

    After the burial of Osiris, Isis retreated to the marshes in the Delta, and there she brought forth Horus. In order to avoid the persecution of Set, who on one occasion succeeded in killing Horus by the sting of a scorpion, she fled from place to place in the Delta, and lived a very unhappy life for some years.

    But Thoth helped her in all her difficulties and provided her with the words of power which restored Horus to life, and enabled her to pass unharmed among the crocodiles and other evil beasts that infested the waters of the Delta at that time.

    When Horus arrived at years of maturity, he set out to find Set and to wage war against his father's murderer. At length they met and a fierce fight ensued, and though Set was defeated before he was finally hurled to the ground, he succeeded in tearing out the right eye of Horus and keeping it.

    Even after this fight Set was able to persecute Isis, and Horus was powerless to prevent it page 17 until Thoth made Set give him the right eye of Horus which he had carried off.

    Thoth then brought the eye to Horus, and replaced it in his face, and restored sight to it by spitting upon it.

    Horus then sought out the body of Osiris in order to raise it up to life, and when he found it he untied the bandages so that Osiris might move his limbs, and rise up.

    Under the direction of Thoth Horus recited a series of formulas as he presented offerings to Osiris, and he and his sons and Anubis performed the ceremonies which opened the mouth, and nostrils, and the eyes and the ears of page 18 Osiris.

    He embraced Osiris and so transferred to him his ka , i. As soon as Osiris had eaten the eye of Horus he became endowed with a soul and vital power, and recovered thereby the complete use of all his mental faculties, which death had suspended.

    Osiris became the type and symbol of resurrection among the Egyptians of all periods, because he was a god who had been originally a mortal and had risen from the dead.

    Piecing together a number of disconnected hints and brief statements in the texts, it seems pretty clear either that Osiris appealed to the "Great Gods" to take notice that Set had murdered him, or that Set brought a series of charges against Osiris.

    At all events the "Great Gods" determined to investigate the matter. The Greater and the Lesser Companies of the Gods assembled in the celestial Anu, or Heliopolis, and ordered Osiris to stand up and defend himself against the charges brought against him by Set.

    Isis and Nephthys brought him before the gods, and Horus, "the avenger of his father," came to watch the case on behalf of his father, Osiris. Thoth appeared in the Hall of Judgment in his official capacity as "scribe," i.

    Set seems to have pleaded his own cause, and to have repeated the charges which he had made against Osiris. The defence of Osiris was undertaken by Thoth, who proved to the gods that the charges brought against Osiris by Set were unfounded, that the statements of Set were lies, and that therefore Set was a liar.

    The gods accepted Thoth's proof of the innocence of Osiris and the guilt of Set, and ordered that Osiris was to be considered a Great God and to have rule over the Kingdom of the Under World, and that Set was to be punished.

    After this Set was bound with cords like a beast for sacrifice, and in the presence of Thoth was hacked in pieces.

    When Set was destroyed Osiris departed from this world to the kingdom which the gods had given him and began to reign over the dead. This region of the dead, or Dead-land, is called "Tat," , or "Tuat," , but where the Egyptians thought it was situated is not quite clear.

    The original home of the cult of Osiris was in the Delta, in a city which in historic times was called Tetu by the Egyptians and Busiris by the Greeks, and it is reasonable to assume that the Tuat, over which Osiris ruled, was situated near this place.

    Wherever it was it was not underground, and it was not originally in the sky or even on its confines; but it was located on the borders of the visible world, in the Outer Darkness.

    When Ani the scribe arrived there he said, "What is this to which I have come? There is neither water nor air here, its depth is unfathomable, it is as dark as the darkest night, and men wander about here helplessly.

    In the Tuat there was neither tree nor plant, for it was the "land where nothing grew"; and in primitive times it was a region of destruction and death, a place where the dead rotted and decayed, a place of abomination, and horror and terror, and annihilation.

    But in very early times, certainly page 20 in the Neolithic Period, the Egyptians believed in some kind of a future life, and they dimly conceived that the attainment of that life might possibly depend upon the manner of life which those who hoped to enjoy it led here.

    The Egyptians "hated death and loved life," and when the belief gained ground among them that Osiris, the God of the Dead, had himself risen from the dead, and had been acquitted by the gods of heaven after a searching trial, and had the power to "make men and women to be born again," and "to renew life" because of his truth and righteousness, they came to regard him as the Judge as well as the God of the Dead.

    As time went on, and moral and religious ideas developed among the Egyptians, it became certain to them that only those who had satisfied Osiris as to their truth-speaking and honest dealing upon earth could hope for admission into his kingdom.

    When the power of Osiris became predominant in the Under World, and his fame as a just and righteous judge became well established among the natives of Lower and Upper Egypt, it was universally believed that after death all men would appear before him in his dread Hall of Judgment to receive their reward or their sentence of doom.

    The writers of the Pyramid Texts, more than fifty-five centuries ago, dreamed of a time when heaven and earth and men did not exist, when the gods had not yet been born, when death had not been created, , and when anger, speech?

    Meanwhile death had come into the world, and since the religion of Osiris gave man a hope of escape from death, and the promise of everlasting life of the peculiar kind that appealed to the great mass of the Egyptian people, the spread of the cult of Osiris and its ultimate triumph over all forms of religion in Egypt were assured.

    It was embraced by the Pharaohs, and their high officials, and some of the nobles, and the official priesthood, but the reward which its doctrine offered was not popular with the materialistic Egyptians.

    The Judgment of Osiris took place near Abydos, probably at midnight, and a decree of swift annihilation was passed by him on the damned.

    Their heads were cut off by the headsman of Osiris, who was called Shesmu, , and their bodies dismembered and destroyed in pits of fire. There was no eternal punishment for men, for the wicked were annihilated quickly and completely; but inasmuch as Osiris sat in judgment and doomed the wicked to destruction daily, the infliction of punishment never ceased.

    The oldest religious texts suggest that the Egyptians always associated the Last Judgment with the weighing of the heart in a pair of scales, and in the illustrated papyri of the Book of the Dead great prominence is always given to the vignettes in which this weighing is being carried out.

    The heart, ab , was taken as the symbol of all the emotions, desires, and passions, both good and evil, and out of it proceeded the issues of life.

    It was intimately connected with the ka , , i. I have destroyed sin for thee. I have not sinned against men. I have not oppressed [my] kinsfolk.

    I have done no wrong in the place of truth.

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